Comparative Gene Expression Analysis of the Coronal Pulp and Apical Pulp Complex in Human Immature Teeth

Soo Hyun Kim, Seunghye Kim, Yooseok Shin, Hyo Seol Lee, Mijeong Jeon, Seong Oh Kim, Sung Won Cho, Nikita B Ruparel, Je Seon Song

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Introduction This study determined the gene expression profiles of the human coronal pulp (CP) and apical pulp complex (APC) with the aim of explaining differences in their functions. Methods Total RNA was isolated from the CP and APC, and gene expression was analyzed using complementary DNA microarray technology. Gene ontology analysis was used to classify the biological function. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining were performed to verify microarray data. Results In the microarray analyses, expression increases of at least 2-fold were present in 125 genes in the APC and 139 genes in the CP out of a total of 33,297 genes. Gene ontology class processes found more genes related to immune responses, cell growth and maintenance, and cell adhesion in the APC, whereas transport and neurogenesis genes predominated in the CP. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining confirmed the microarray results, with DMP1, CALB1, and GABRB1 strongly expressed in the CP, whereas SMOC2, SHH, BARX1, CX3CR1, SPP1, COL XII, and LAMC2 were strongly expressed in the APC. Conclusions The expression levels of genes related to dentin mineralization, neurogenesis, and neurotransmission are higher in the CP in human immature teeth, whereas those of immune-related and tooth development-related genes are higher in the APC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)752-759
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Endodontics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2016



  • Apical pulp complex
  • complementary DNA microarray
  • coronal pulp
  • human immature teeth
  • immunohistochemical staining

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)

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