Combination of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) and eugenol for apoptosis induction synergistically in androgen independent prostate cancer cells

Rita Ghosh, Manonmani Ganapathy, William L. Alworth, Daniel C. Chan, Addanki P Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Lack of effective treatment options for the management of hormone refractory prostate cancer (PCA) reinforce the great need to develop novel compounds that act singly or in combination. 2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) is an endogenous estrogenic metabolite that has been reported to work as an antiproliferative agent in various tumor models including prostate. Recently conducted clinical trial in hormone refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) patients concluded that 2-ME2 was safe and well tolerated. However this study identified bioavailability of 2-ME2 as a limiting factor. Here we report the ability of a combination of 2-ME2 and eugenol (4-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) as an approach for enhancing anticancerous activities in prostate cancer cells. Combining 2-ME2 with eugenol (i) inhibited growth of prostate cancer cells and induced apoptosis at lower concentrations than either single agent alone; (ii) analysis of the data using combination index (CI) showed CI values of 0.4 indicating strong synergistic interaction; (iii) increased population of cells G2/M phase by 4.5-fold (p = 0.01); (iv) significantly reduced expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and enhanced expression of proapoptotic protein Bax. Combination induced apoptosis was not affected in PC-3 cells that over-express or lack Bcl-2 but was associated with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Since 2-ME2 was well tolerated in phase II trail in patients with HRPC; and eugenol is consumed by humans in the form of spices, the combination of 2-ME2 with eugenol may offer a new clinically relevant treatment regimen. Combining these agents may allow ameliorating any adverse effects of either 2-ME2 or eugenol alone by reducing their individual concentrations should these two agents be developed for human use.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)25-35
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Volume113
Issue number1-2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2009

Fingerprint

Eugenol
Androgens
Prostatic Neoplasms
Cells
Refractory materials
Apoptosis
Hormones
Metabolites
Spices
Mitochondrial Membrane Potential
G2 Phase
Tumors
Proteins
Cell Division
Biological Availability
Prostate
Membranes
2-methoxyestradiol
Clinical Trials
Therapeutics

Keywords

  • 2-Methoxyestradiol
  • Apoptosis
  • Combination agents
  • Eugenol
  • Mitochondrial membrane potential and prostate cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Combination of 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME2) and eugenol for apoptosis induction synergistically in androgen independent prostate cancer cells. / Ghosh, Rita; Ganapathy, Manonmani; Alworth, William L.; Chan, Daniel C.; Kumar, Addanki P.

In: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Vol. 113, No. 1-2, 01.2009, p. 25-35.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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