Coherence analysis of envelope-following responses (EFRs) and frequency-following responses (FFRs) in infants and adults

Ellen C. Levi, Richard C. Folsom, Robert A. Dobie

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The frequency-following response (FFR) and the envelope-following response (EFR) were recorded in 1-month-old infants and in adults to examine the development of temporal coding. The stimuli were amplitude-modulated (AM) tones. A modulation frequency of 80 Hz was used in infants; modulation frequencies of 40 and 80 Hz were used in adults. The effects of intensity, carrier frequency, and modulation frequency on these responses were studied. Responses were analyzed using magnitude-squared coherence. The effect of intensity on the growth of FFR- and EFR-coherence were similar in infants and adults. In addition, the growth functions were not affected by the carrier frequency or the modulation frequency of the stimulus. FFR thresholds did not differ across age groups. 'Best frequency' (i.e., infant 80 Hz and adult 40 Hz) EFR thresholds were the same for infants and adults at 500 and 1000 Hz, but infant EFR thresholds were poorer than adult thresholds at 2000 Hz. Thus, although FFRs and EFRs are primarily adult-like at 1 month of age, there are some age differences in the EFR that deserve further study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-27
Number of pages7
JournalHearing Research
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - Sep 1995



  • Auditory development
  • Auditory evoked potential
  • Coherence
  • Steady-state response
  • Threshold

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sensory Systems

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