Cognitive rehabilitation for schizophrenia and the putative role of motivation and expectancies

Dawn I. Velligan, Robert S. Kern, James M. Gold

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

156 Scopus citations


Cognitive rehabilitation (CR) approaches seek to enhance cognitive processes or to circumvent cognitive impairments in schizophrenia in an effort to improve functional outcome. In this review we examine the research findings on the 8 evidence-based approaches to cognitive remediation listed in the 2005 Training Grid Outlining Best Practices for Recovery and Improved Outcomes for People With Serious Mental Illness, developed by the American Psychological Association Committee for the Advancement of Professional Practice. Though the approaches vary widely in theoretical orientation and methods of intervention, the results are, for the most part, encouraging. Improvements in attention, memory, and executive functioning have been reported. However, many persons with schizophrenia are more impaired in real-world functioning than one would expect given the magnitude of their cognitive deficits. We may need to look beyond cognition to other targets such as motivation to identify the reasons that many persons with schizophrenia demonstrate such marked levels of disability. Although a number of current CR approaches address motivation to varying degrees, treating motivation as a primary target may be needed to maximize CR outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)474-485
Number of pages12
JournalSchizophrenia bulletin
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 2006


  • Cognitive rehabilitation
  • Cognitive remediation
  • Motivation
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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