Tuberculosis (TB) and coccidioidomycosis can have similar clinical and radiologic presentations but require different treatments. Coinfection with TB and Coccidioides immitis is uncommonly reported and may be underdiagnosed in endemic areas. We performed a retrospective review of the medical records of all patients admitted to a TB referral hospital between 1995 and 2007, and selected all cases of TB and coccidioidomycosis coinfection in patients aged 18 years or older. All admitted patients had a diagnosis of TB and had sputum cultures for both pathogens. We reviewed clinical, laboratory, and radiologic features of the cases, and noted antimicrobial treatments received and outcomes. We identified 9 patients, of whom 7 (78%) were Hispanic. Most patients were male (8/9, 89%), and all were diagnosed with coccidioidomycosis after TB. Three (33%) patients had drug-resistant TB. Six patients had culture-positive TB at the time of the double diagnosis, and 2 patients developed active coccidioidomycosis during their hospital stay. Only 1 had human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV-AIDS) (CD4 count, 20 cells/mm3). All but 2 patients were treated with antifungal agents. Two patients died, 1 of whom had AIDS. Radiologic studies were unable to distinguish between TB and coccidioidomycosis, except for a patient who developed a new air-fluid level in a previously stable cavity. TB and coccidioidomycosis coinfection should be suspected in coccidioidomycosis-endemic regions among patients with TB who fail to improve clinically or radiologically despite adequate, culture-directed therapy.
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