Clinical Outcomes of Immature Teeth Treated with Regenerative Endodontic Procedures—A San Antonio Study

Vanessa Chrepa, Ruchika Joon, Obadah Austah, Anibal Diogenes, Kenneth M. Hargreaves, Mostafa Ezeldeen, Nikita B. Ruparel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


Introduction: Factors that influence clinical outcomes for regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) are unknown. This retrospective study aimed to assess tooth healing, root development, pulp vitality, and esthetics post-REPs and categorize them into clinician- and patient-centered outcomes. Furthermore, this study identified significant predictors affecting such outcomes. Methods: Immature permanent teeth diagnosed with pulp necrosis treated with REPs between 2008 and 2018 with a minimum of 1-year follow-up were included. Outcomes included success and survival rates, changes in root development using 2-dimensional radiographic root area (RRA) and 3-dimensional measurements, pulp vitality, and tooth discoloration. Predictor variables of success included age, sex, etiology of pulp necrosis (PN), type of medicament, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) concentration, type of biomaterial used over the blood clot, and preoperative apical diagnosis. Statistical analyses included Cox proportional hazard analyses and generalized regression models. Results: Fifty-one teeth with an average of 2.1 years of follow-up satisfied the criteria. The survival rate was 92%. The success rate was 84.3% with age, etiology of PN, type of medicament, and NaOCl concentration being significant predictors of failure. Root development occurred in 91.4% of cases with age, sex, etiology of PN, type of medicament, NaOCl concentration, and apical diagnosis being significant predictors for RRA change. Positive pulp sensibility responses were associated with greater RRA change, and, finally, the type of biomaterial was a significant predictor for tooth discoloration after treatment. Conclusions:: REPs provide a high survival rate. Patient and clinical factors may affect outcomes, and this knowledge may help to define the criteria for optimal treatment planning of REPs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1074-1084
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of endodontics
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2020


  • Radiographic root area
  • retrospective regenerative endodontics
  • root development
  • success
  • survival
  • volumetric analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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