Clinical lactation practice: 20 years of evidence

Karen Wambach, Suzanne Hetzel Campell, Sara L. Gill, Joan E. Dodgson, Titilayo C. Abiona, M. Jane Heinig

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Lactation consultants depend on a vast multidisciplinary knowledge base to support their practices. To coincide with the 20-year anniversary of the International Lactation Consultant Association, the authors sought to highlight the knowledge base to demonstrate how practice has been affected. Using standard databases, they extracted English-language scientific literature related to breastfeeding and maternal and infant health outcomes; factors associated with breastfeeding initiation, exclusivity, and duration; lactation physiology; common breastfeeding challenges; breastfeeding practices within vulnerable populations; health professional support of breastfeeding; and breastfeeding practices in developing countries of Africa. Summaries of research are provided to demonstrate scientific method and knowledge evolution. As the knowledge of the biological, behavioral, and environmental factors that affect breast-feeding continues to grow, researchers and lactation consultants will identify additional research areas. Thus, the cycle of describing and explaining phenomena, testing interventions to improve practice, and ultimately improving breastfeeding outcomes worldwide will continue.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)245-258
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Human Lactation
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2005


  • Breastfeeding
  • Clinical
  • Developing countries
  • Infant feeding
  • Lactation
  • Physiology
  • Research

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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