Classification of paroxysmal events and the four-dimensional epilepsy classification system

Hans Lüders, Guadalupe Fernandez Baca Vaca, Naoki Akamatsu, Shahram Amina, Alexis Arzimanoglou, Christoph Baumgartner, Selim R. Benbadis, Andrew Bleasel, Adriana Bermeo-Ovalle, Alireza Bozorgi, Mar Carreño, Michael Devereaux, Stefano Francione, Naiara García Losarcos, Hajo Hamer, Hans Holthausen, Shirin Jamal-Omidi, Giri Kalamangalam, Andrés M. Kanner, Susanne KnakeNuria Lacuey, Samden Lhatoo, Shih Hui Lim, Luisa V. Londoño, Jayanti Mani, Riki Matsumoto, Jonathan P. Miller, Soheyl Noachtar, André Palmini, Jun Park, Felix Rosenow, Asim Shahid, Stephan Schuele, Bernhard J. Steinhoff, Charles Ákos Szabó, Nitin Tandon, Kiyohito Terada, Walter van Emde Boas, Peter Widdess-Walsh, Philippe Kahane

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


This educational review describes the classification of paroxysmal events and a four-dimensional epilepsy classification system. Paroxysmal events are classified as epileptic and non-epileptic paroxysmal events. Non-epileptic events are, in turn, classified as psychogenic and organic paroxysmal events. The following four dimensions are used to classify epileptic paroxysmal events: ictal semiology, the epileptogenic zone, etiology, and comorbidities. Efforts are made to keep these four dimensions as independent as possible. The review also includes 12 educational vignettes and three more detailed case reports classified using the 2017 classification of the ILAE and the four-dimensional epilepsy classification. In addition, a case is described which is classified using the four-dimensional epilepsy classification with different degrees of precision by an emergency department physician, a neurologist, and an epileptologist. [Published with video sequences on].

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-29
Number of pages29
JournalEpileptic Disorders
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 2019


  • classification
  • epileptogenic zone
  • etiology
  • semiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Classification of paroxysmal events and the four-dimensional epilepsy classification system'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this