Circulating levels of inflammatory biomarkers in Huntington's disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Alireza Soltani Khaboushan, Aysan Moeinafshar, Mohammad Hamed Ersi, Antonio L. Teixeira, Masoumeh Majidi Zolbin, Abdol Mohammad Kajbafzadeh

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background: Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by an abnormally high number of CAG repeats at the huntingtin-encoding gene, HTT. This genetic alteration results in the expression of a mutant form of the protein (mHTT) and the formation of intracellular aggregates, inducing an inflammatory state within the affected areas. This dysfunction of inflammatory response leads to elevated levels of related inflammatory markers in both CNS tissue samples and body fluids. This study aims to investigate peripheral/blood concentrations of inflammatory molecules in HD. Methods: A search was conducted in MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase databases until March 30th, 2023. Random-effect meta-analysis was used for exploring concentrations of inflammatory molecules in HD. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were used to assess heterogeneity among the included studies. The study protocol has been registered in PROSPERO with the ID number CRD42022296078. Results: Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. Plasma levels of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-10 were higher in HD compared to controls. Other biomarkers, namely, complement component C-reactive protein (CRP), C3, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-1, IL-2, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), did not show any significant differences between the two groups. In addition, the subgroup analysis results established no significant differences in levels of these biomarkers in body fluids among premanifest and manifest HD patients. Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence for the presence of higher plasma levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in HD patients in comparison with healthy controls.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number578243
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
StatePublished - Dec 15 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Biomarkers
  • Cytokine
  • Huntington's disease
  • Neurodegenerative disorders
  • Neuroinflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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