Chronic hyperinsulinemia inhibits platelet-activating factor (PAF) biosynthesis in the rat kidney

George B. Kudolo, Sietse J. Koopmans, Joseph R. Haywood, Ralph A. DeFronzo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

A number of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including hypertension, are associated with the insulin resistance syndrome. The hallmark of this syndrome is an impairment in insulin action which provokes a compensatory increase in pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion leading to chronic hyperinsulinemia. Indirect studies show that platelet-activating factor (1-O-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine, PAF), a potent antihypertensive lipid produced by the kidney, may be decreased by hyperinsulinemia. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chronic hyperinsulinemia on renal PAF metabolism, arterial blood pressure and whole body insulin sensitivity. Chronic catheterized, unstressed rats were infused with saline or insulin plus glucose to create a chronic condition of sustained euglycemic (~130 mg/dl) hyperinsulinemia (~90 mU/l, or 3-fold over basal levels). PAF is a metabolically unstable compound being susceptible to rapid degradation to the biologically inactive lyso-PAF, a metabolite which also serves as a precursor for PAF synthesis. PAF synthesis and counter-regulatory prostaglandins may be derived from the same arachidonate precursor. The enzymes which catalyze these reactions were measured in plasma and in the subcellular fractions of the kidneys. Compared to saline-treated rats, sustained physiologic hyperinsulinemia for 7 days: (i) decreased insulin-mediated glucose disposal by 30%; (ii) caused an increased plasma PAF:acetylhydrolase, which degrades PAF to lyso-PAF, without any change in cytosolic PAF:acetylhydrolase activity; and (iii) completely inhibited microsomal lyso-PAF:acetyl CoA acetyltransferase activity which catalyzes the conversion of lysoPAF back to bioactive PAF. The increased catabolism of PAF in plasma, combined with decreased renal PAF biosynthesis, would be expected to decrease circulating PAF levels, leading to a rise in blood pressure. However, blood pressure remained unchanged. The sustained hyperinsulinemia stimulated plasma membrane CoA-independent transacylase activity, which is responsible for the mobilization of arachidonates into lyso-PAF, to form 1-alkylarachidonoyl-glycerophosphocholine. The latter is the stored precursor for the synthesis of PAF and vasodilatory prostaglandins, which may have offset the effect of decreased PAF. We hypothesize that hyperinsulinemia may alter the blood pressure only if the balance between the synthesis/catabolism of PAF and vasodilatory prostaglandins is disrupted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)23-37
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Lipid Mediators and Cell Signalling
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 1997

Keywords

  • hyperinsulinemia
  • insulin resistance
  • kidney
  • platelet-activating factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology

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