Duplications and deletions of the same gene loci or chromosome regions are known to produce different clinical manifestations and are significant factors in human morbidity and mortality. Extensive cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic studies with cosmid and YAC probes in two patients with unique mosaicism for reciprocal duplication-deletion allowed us to further understand the origin of these abnormalities. The first patient's mosaic karyotype was 46,XX,inv dup(11) (q23q13)/46,XX,del(11)(q13q23). The second patient had a 46,XY,dup(7)(p11.2p13)/46,XY,del(7)(p11.2p13)/46,XY karyotype. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies on the first patient placed the two breakpoints near the folate-sensitive fragile sites FRA11A and FRA11B. The presence of repeated sequences responsible for these fragile sites may have been involved in the patient's duplication-deletion. Our investigation leads us to conclude that, in addition to known mechanisms (such as unequal crossovers between homologs, unequal sister chromatid exchanges, excision of intrachromatid loops, and meiotic recombination within a single chromatid), duplication-deletion can also arise by the formation of an overlying loop followed by an uneven crossover at the level of the DNA strand.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology