Over the past few years, chloride has joined the league of essential electrolytes for critically ill patients. Dyschloremia can occur secondary to various etiologic factors before and during patient admission in the intensive care unit. Some cases are disease-related; others, treatment-related. Chloride abnormalities were shown in animal models to have adverse effects on arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and inflammatory markers, which have led to several clinical investigations. Hyperchloremia was studied in several settings and correlated to different outcomes, including death and acute kidney injury. Baseline hypochloremia, to a much lesser extent, has been studied and associated with similar outcomes. The chloride content of resuscitation fluids was also a subject of clinical research. In this review, we describe the effect of dyschloremia on outcomes in critically ill patients. We review the major studies assessing the chloride content of resuscitation fluids in the critically ill patient.
- Acute kidney injury
- Chloride abnormalities
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)