Chemokine receptors have been recently identified as the important co-factors which in conjunction with CD4, mediate entry of HIV into its target cells. The brain is one of the most prominent targets of HIV infection, where it leads to HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and HIV-associated dementia. Knowledge of the distribution, physiology, and pathology of chemokines and chemokine receptors in the human brain is fundamental for understanding the pathogenesis of the interaction between HIV and the central nervous system (CNS). There is also increasing evidence that chemokine receptors expression in the CNS increases during pathological, especially inflammatory, conditions. The major co-factors for HIV infection, CCR5, CCR3, and CXCR4 have been detected in the human brain in a variety of cell types including microglia, astrocytes, neurons, and vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, antibodies to chemokine receptors can also block HIV infectivity in cultured CNS cells. This indicates that chemokine receptors are likely to have a functional role in the pathogenesis of HIVE.
- Chemokine receptors
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience