Background: The discussion is ongoing about appropriate indications for laparoscopic surgery in trauma patients. As timing and risks of conversion to laparotomy remain unclear, we aimed to elucidate characteristics of and risks for conversion following laparoscopic surgery, using a nationwide database. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted, using Japanese Trauma Data Bank (2004–2018). We included adult trauma patients who underwent laparoscopic surgery as an initial surgical intervention. Conversion to laparotomy was defined as laparotomy at the initial surgery. Patient demographics, mechanism and severity of injury, injured organs, timing of surgery, and clinical outcomes were compared between patients with and without conversion. Risks for conversion were analyzed focusing on indications for laparoscopic surgery, after adjusting patient and institution characteristics. Results: Among 444 patients eligible for the study, 31 required conversions to laparotomy. The number of laparoscopic surgeries gradually increased over the study period (0.5–4.5% of trauma laparotomy), without changes in conversion rates (5–10%). Patients who underwent conversion had more severe abdominal injuries compared with those who did not (AIS 3 vs 2). While length of hospital stay and in-hospital mortality were comparable, abdominal complications were higher among patients with conversion (12.9 vs. 2.9%), particularly when laparoscopy was performed for peritonitis (OR, 22.08 [5.11–95.39]). A generalized estimating equation model adjusted patient background and identified hemoperitoneum and peritoneal penetration as risks for conversion (OR, 24.07 [7.35–78.75] and 8.26 [1.20– 56.75], respectively). Conclusions: Trauma laparoscopy for hemoperitoneum and peritoneal penetration were associated with higher incidence of conversion to open laparotomy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas