Background. Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) in younger patients has been suggested to require liver transplantation (LT) in early adulthood, but data is limited on its outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the characteristics and outcome of LT in young patients with PBC in comparison with older adults. Methods. The United Network for Organ Sharing database was analyzed for all patients with PBC who underwent LT between 2000 and 2012. Based on age at the time of LT, subjects were divided into 2 groups: young patients (≤40 y) and older adults (≥41 y). Baseline demographics, clinical parameters, and outcomes of LT were then compared between the 2 groups. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess the factors associated with outcomes of LT. Results. A total of 2084 patients with PBC were included in the analysis with 158 young patients. Compared with older adults, younger patients were more likely to be male (27.2% versus 15.4%) and nonwhite (43.7% versus 21.5%), but they were less likely to have obesity, diabetes, or hypertension (P < 0.05) and had a lower mortality (8.2% versus 15.1%) but higher retransplantation rate (14.6% versus 4.7%) (P < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, older age, dialysis or ventilator use, and lower albumin were associated with high post-LT mortality. Conclusions. Compared with older adults, early-onset PBC in younger patients requiring LT had higher percentage of males and nonwhites and had a lower prevalence of metabolic comorbidities but higher retransplantation rates. Further studies are warranted to confirm these findings.
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