Context: The outcome of patients receiving mechanical ventilation for particular indications has been studied, but the outcome in a large number of unselected, heterogeneous patients has not been reported. Objective: To determine the survival of patients receiving mechanical ventilation and the relative importance of factors influencing survival. Design, Setting, and Subjects: Prospective cohort of consecutive adult patients admitted to 361 intensive care units who received mechanical ventilation for more than 12 hours between March 1, 1998, and March 31, 1998. Data were collected on each patient at initiation of mechanical ventilation and daily throughout the course of mechanical ventilation for up to 28 days. Main Outcome Measure: All-cause mortality during intensive care unit stay. Results: Of the 15757 patients admitted, a total of 5183 (33%) received mechanical ventilation for a mean (SD) duration of 5.9 (7.2) days. The mean (SD) length of stay in the intensive care unit was 11.2 (13.7) days. Overall mortality rate in the intensive care unit was 30.7% (1590 patients) for the entire population, 52% (120) in patients who received ventilation because of acute respiratory distress syndrome, and 22% (115) in patients who received ventilation for an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Survival of unselected patients receiving mechanical ventilation for more than 12 hours was 69%. The main conditions independently associated with increased mortality were (1) factors present at the start of mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 2.98; 95% confidence interval ICI], 2.44-3.63; P<.001 for coma), (2) factors related to patient management (OR, 3.67; 95% CI, 2.02-6.66; P<.001 for plateau airway pressure >35 cm H2O), and (3) developments occurring over the course of mechanical ventilation (OR, 8.71; 95% CI, 5.44-13.94; P<.001 for ratio of PaO2 to fraction of inspired oxygen <100). Conclusion: Survival among mechanically ventilated patients depends not only on the factors present at the start of mechanical ventilation, but also on the development of complications and patient management in the intensive care unit.
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