Central AT1 receptor signaling by circulating angiotensin II is permissive to acute intermittent hypoxia-induced sympathetic neuroplasticity

Caroline G. Shimoura, Mary Ann Andrade, Glenn M. Toney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) triggers sympathetic long-term facilitation (sLTF), a progressive increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) linked to central AT1 receptor (AT1R) activation by circulating angiotensin II (ANG II). Here, we investigated AIH activation of the peripheral renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the extent to which the magnitude of RAS activation predicts the magnitude of AIH-induced sLTF. In anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, plasma renin activity (PRA) increased in a linear fashion in response to 5 (P = 0.0342) and 10 (P < 0.0001) cycles of AIH, with PRA remaining at the 10th cycle level 1 h later, a period over which SNA progressively increased. On average, SNA ramping began at the AIH cycle 4.6 + 0.9 (n = 12) and was similar in magnitude 1 h later whether AIH consisted of 5 or 10 cycles (n = 6/group). Necessity of central AT1R in post-AIH sLTF was affirmed by intracerebroventricular (icv) losartan (40 nmol, 2 μL; n = 5), which strongly attenuated both splanchnic (P = 0.0469) and renal (P = 0.0018) sLTF compared with vehicle [artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), 2 μL; n = 5]. Bilateral nephrectomy largely prevented sLTF, affirming the necessity of peripheral RAS activation. Sufficiency of central ANG II signaling was assessed in nephrectomized rats. Whereas ICV ANG II (0.5 ng/0.5 μL, 30 min) in nephrectomized rats exposed to sham AIH (n = 4) failed to cause SNA ramping, it rescued sLTF in nephrectomized rats exposed to five cycles of AIH [splanchnic SNA (SSNA), P = 0.0227; renal SNA (RSNA), P = 0.0390; n = 5]. Findings indicate that AIH causes progressive peripheral RAS activation, which stimulates an apparent threshold level of central AT1R signaling that plays a permissive role in triggering sLTF. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) triggers sympathetic long-term facilitation (sLTF) that relies on peripheral renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. Here, increasing AIH cycles from 5 to 10 proportionally increased RAS activity, but not the magnitude of post-AIH sLTF. Brain angiotensin II (ANG II) receptor blockade and nephrectomy each largely prevented sLTF, whereas central ANG II rescued it following nephrectomy. Peripheral RAS activation by AIH induces time-dependent neuroplasticity at an apparent central ANG II signaling threshold, triggering a stereotyped sLTF response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1329-1337
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of applied physiology
Volume128
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2020

Keywords

  • Hypertension
  • Sleep apnea
  • Sympathetic nerve activity
  • Synaptic plasticity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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