Central Administration of Lipopolysaccharide Induces Depressive-like Behavior in Vivo and Activates Brain Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase In Murine Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures

Xin Fu, Samantha M. Zunich, Jason O'connor, Annemieke Kavelaars, Robert Dantzer, Keith W. Kelley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

81 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Transient stimulation of the innate immune system by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates peripheral and central expression of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) which mediates depressive-like behavior. It is unknown whether direct activation of the brain with LPS is sufficient to activate IDO and induce depressive-like behavior.Methods: Sickness and depressive-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice were assessed by social exploration and the forced swim test, respectively. Expression of cytokines and IDO mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR and cytokine protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Enzymatic activity of IDO was estimated as the amount of kynurenine produced from tryptophan as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection.Results: Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of LPS (100 ng) increased steady-state transcripts of TNFα, IL-6 and the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus in the absence of any change in IFNγ mRNA. LPS also increased IDO expression and induced depressive-like behavior, as measured by increased duration of immobility in the forced swim test. The regulation of IDO expression was investigated using in situ organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) derived from brains of newborn C57BL/6J mice. In accordance with the in vivo data, addition of LPS (10 ng/ml) to the medium of OHSCs induced steady-state expression of mRNA transcripts for IDO that peaked at 6 h and translated into increased IDO enzymatic activity within 8 h post-LPS. This activation of IDO by direct application of LPS was preceded by synthesis and secretion of TNFα and IL-6 protein and activation of iNOS while IFNγ expression was undetectable.Conclusion: These data establish that activation of the innate immune system in the brain is sufficient to activate IDO and induce depressive-like behavior in the absence of detectable IFNγ. Targeting IDO itself may provide a novel therapy for inflammation-associated depression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number43
JournalJournal of Neuroinflammation
Volume7
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2 2010
Externally publishedYes

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Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase
Lipopolysaccharides
Brain
Inbred C57BL Mouse
Tryptophan
Messenger RNA
Immune System
Interleukin-6
Protein Isoforms
Cytokines
Kynurenine
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Intraperitoneal Injections
Nitric Oxide Synthase
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Hippocampus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Neurology
  • Immunology
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

Central Administration of Lipopolysaccharide Induces Depressive-like Behavior in Vivo and Activates Brain Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase In Murine Organotypic Hippocampal Slice Cultures. / Fu, Xin; Zunich, Samantha M.; O'connor, Jason; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Dantzer, Robert; Kelley, Keith W.

In: Journal of Neuroinflammation, Vol. 7, 43, 02.08.2010.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Transient stimulation of the innate immune system by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates peripheral and central expression of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) which mediates depressive-like behavior. It is unknown whether direct activation of the brain with LPS is sufficient to activate IDO and induce depressive-like behavior.Methods: Sickness and depressive-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice were assessed by social exploration and the forced swim test, respectively. Expression of cytokines and IDO mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR and cytokine protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Enzymatic activity of IDO was estimated as the amount of kynurenine produced from tryptophan as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection.Results: Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of LPS (100 ng) increased steady-state transcripts of TNFα, IL-6 and the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus in the absence of any change in IFNγ mRNA. LPS also increased IDO expression and induced depressive-like behavior, as measured by increased duration of immobility in the forced swim test. The regulation of IDO expression was investigated using in situ organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) derived from brains of newborn C57BL/6J mice. In accordance with the in vivo data, addition of LPS (10 ng/ml) to the medium of OHSCs induced steady-state expression of mRNA transcripts for IDO that peaked at 6 h and translated into increased IDO enzymatic activity within 8 h post-LPS. This activation of IDO by direct application of LPS was preceded by synthesis and secretion of TNFα and IL-6 protein and activation of iNOS while IFNγ expression was undetectable.Conclusion: These data establish that activation of the innate immune system in the brain is sufficient to activate IDO and induce depressive-like behavior in the absence of detectable IFNγ. Targeting IDO itself may provide a novel therapy for inflammation-associated depression.",
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AU - Fu, Xin

AU - Zunich, Samantha M.

AU - O'connor, Jason

AU - Kavelaars, Annemieke

AU - Dantzer, Robert

AU - Kelley, Keith W.

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N2 - Background: Transient stimulation of the innate immune system by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates peripheral and central expression of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) which mediates depressive-like behavior. It is unknown whether direct activation of the brain with LPS is sufficient to activate IDO and induce depressive-like behavior.Methods: Sickness and depressive-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice were assessed by social exploration and the forced swim test, respectively. Expression of cytokines and IDO mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR and cytokine protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Enzymatic activity of IDO was estimated as the amount of kynurenine produced from tryptophan as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection.Results: Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of LPS (100 ng) increased steady-state transcripts of TNFα, IL-6 and the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus in the absence of any change in IFNγ mRNA. LPS also increased IDO expression and induced depressive-like behavior, as measured by increased duration of immobility in the forced swim test. The regulation of IDO expression was investigated using in situ organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) derived from brains of newborn C57BL/6J mice. In accordance with the in vivo data, addition of LPS (10 ng/ml) to the medium of OHSCs induced steady-state expression of mRNA transcripts for IDO that peaked at 6 h and translated into increased IDO enzymatic activity within 8 h post-LPS. This activation of IDO by direct application of LPS was preceded by synthesis and secretion of TNFα and IL-6 protein and activation of iNOS while IFNγ expression was undetectable.Conclusion: These data establish that activation of the innate immune system in the brain is sufficient to activate IDO and induce depressive-like behavior in the absence of detectable IFNγ. Targeting IDO itself may provide a novel therapy for inflammation-associated depression.

AB - Background: Transient stimulation of the innate immune system by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates peripheral and central expression of the tryptophan degrading enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) which mediates depressive-like behavior. It is unknown whether direct activation of the brain with LPS is sufficient to activate IDO and induce depressive-like behavior.Methods: Sickness and depressive-like behavior in C57BL/6J mice were assessed by social exploration and the forced swim test, respectively. Expression of cytokines and IDO mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR and cytokine protein was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Enzymatic activity of IDO was estimated as the amount of kynurenine produced from tryptophan as determined by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection.Results: Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of LPS (100 ng) increased steady-state transcripts of TNFα, IL-6 and the inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the hippocampus in the absence of any change in IFNγ mRNA. LPS also increased IDO expression and induced depressive-like behavior, as measured by increased duration of immobility in the forced swim test. The regulation of IDO expression was investigated using in situ organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs) derived from brains of newborn C57BL/6J mice. In accordance with the in vivo data, addition of LPS (10 ng/ml) to the medium of OHSCs induced steady-state expression of mRNA transcripts for IDO that peaked at 6 h and translated into increased IDO enzymatic activity within 8 h post-LPS. This activation of IDO by direct application of LPS was preceded by synthesis and secretion of TNFα and IL-6 protein and activation of iNOS while IFNγ expression was undetectable.Conclusion: These data establish that activation of the innate immune system in the brain is sufficient to activate IDO and induce depressive-like behavior in the absence of detectable IFNγ. Targeting IDO itself may provide a novel therapy for inflammation-associated depression.

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