CC chemokine receptor 5-mediated signaling and HIV-1 co-receptor activity share common structural determinants. Critical residues in the third extracellular loop support HIV-1 fusion

Ghalib Alkhatib, Seema S. Ahuja, Dana Light, Srinivas Mummidi, Edward A. Berger, Sunil K. Ahuja

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Abstract

There is a close correspondence between the ability of RANTES and macrophage inflammatory proteins 1α and 1β to activate CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) and the ability to inhibit CCR5-dependent membrane fusion mediated by the envelope glycoprotein of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), type 1. This finding suggests that some of the structural determinants for CC chemokine/CCR5 interactions and CCR5 HIV-1 fusion co-receptor activity may be shared. Recent studies using human CCR5/CCR2B chimeras have suggested that the determinants of CCR5 co-receptor activity are complex and may involve multiple extracellular receptor domains and that viral co-receptor activity is dissociable from ligand-dependent signaling responses. However, conclusive evidence demonstrating an important role for the second and third extracellular regions of human CCR5 is lacking. Furthermore, to determine whether the determinants for CCR5 co-receptor activity overlap with those required for agonist activity, studies that compare the chemokine specificity for inhibition of envelope-mediated cell fusion and the agonist profile of chimeric receptors are necessary. In the present report, using a series of CCR5/CCR2B chimeras we ascribe an important role for the second and third extracellular loop of CCR5 in supporting the co-receptor activity of CCR5. We also provide evidence that the intracytoplasmic tail of CCR5 does not play an important role in supporting HIV-1 entry. The hypothesis that the structural determinants for CC chemokine/CCR5 interactions and CCR5 HIV-1 fusion co- receptor activity may be shared was confirmed by two novel observations: first, the fusion activity supported by two hybrid receptors could he inhibited by both RANTES and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, chemokines specific to CCR5 and CCR2B, respectively; and second, the chemokine specificity for inhibition of envelope-mediated cell fusion matched the agonist profile of these hybrid receptors. These data shed new light on the structural determinants involved in these distinct activities of CCR5 and may have important implications for the development of CCR5-targeted anti-viral compounds.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19771-19776
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume272
Issue number32
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 8 1997

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ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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