Carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae in craniofacial trauma: Classification and treatment

D. F. Jimenez, S. R. Gibbs

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae (CCF) represent pathological communications between the intracavernous internal carotid artery and the cavernous venous sinus. Although trauma is the most common cause of high flow carotid cavernous fistulae, they are relatively uncommon in patients sustaining craniofacial trauma. Nevertheless, CCF require early diagnosis and rapid and effective treatment in order to prevent severe and significant morbidity. Clinical presentation may include pulsatile proptosis, ocular and orbital erythema, chemosis, diplopia, headaches, and visual loss. Cerebral angiography is currently the definitive diagnostic study. Obliteration of the fistula by endovascular techniques is the current mainstay treatment, and direct surgery is reserved for cases that have failed endovascular therapy. This article reviews clinical features, pertinent anatomy, and therapeutic approaches to carotid-cavernous sinus fistulae.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8-17
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Trauma
Issue number3
StatePublished - Dec 1 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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