Eosinophil-associated diseases (EADs) are a diverse group of disorders characterized by an increase in circulating or tissue eosinophils. Cardiopulmonary and gastrointestinal system involvement can be due to primary EAD with no known cause or can be secondary to known systemic disease. The cardiopulmonary spectrum of EADs comprises simple pulmonary eosinophilia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, Churg-Strauss syndrome, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis, parasitic infections, and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and eosinophilic colitis. Diagnosis is often challenging and requires a combination of clinical and imaging features along with laboratory findings. The absolute eosinophil count in peripheral blood and the percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are crucial in evaluation of various eosinophilic lung diseases. Although chest radiography is the initial imaging modality used in suspected cases of pulmonary EAD, multidetector computed tomography may demonstrate more characteristic pulmonary patterns, nodules, and subtle parenchymal abnormalities. Barium esophagography is used to assess mucosal abnormalities and the length and diameter of esophageal strictures. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior in providing valuable information in select patients, especially in evaluation of cardiac and gastrointestinal system involvement. Many patients require a multimodality imaging approach to enable diagnosis, guide treatment, and assess treatment response. Knowledge of the clinical features and imaging findings of the spectrum of EADs involving the lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract permits optimal patient care.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging