Objectives: To evaluate risk factors for postoperative cardiac complications (POCC). Patients undergoing cystectomy often have significant baseline cardiac disease. Despite preoperative medical optimization, postoperative cardiac complications remain a significant source of morbidity. Methods: A retrospective review of all radical cystectomies for bladder cancer between January 2004 and September 2006 was performed. Twelve preoperative risk factors were evaluated, including age, Charlson Comorbidity Index, type of urinary diversion, and previous cardiac history. All complications, including myocardial infarction (MI) and new onset arrhythmia, were recorded for 90 days postoperatively. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. Results: A total of 283 patients underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer between January/2004 and September 2006. The median age of the cohort was 70 (35-90) years. Of 283 patients, 64 (23%) had a significant preoperative cardiac history, including 18 (6%) with prior coronary artery bypass and 30 (11%) with a history of MIs. Thirty-one (11%) patients had either new onset arrhythmia (22, 8%) or MI (10, 4%) and 1 had both. On univariate analysis, cardiac history, age, type of urinary diversion, and the Charlson Comorbidity Index demonstrated significance. The risk of POCC was associated with ileal conduit urinary diversion (P = .026, OR 5.58 [1.23-25.36]) and the Charlson Index score (P = .030, OR 1.28 [1.024-1.60]) on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Multiple, inter-related factors may predict cardiac complications in the early postoperative period. Despite perioperative optimization, patients with a prior cardiac history should be counseled, regarding the increased risk of postoperative cardiac complications. The association between cardiac complications and ileal conduit diversion highlights the selection bias toward patients with preexisting comorbid disease.
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