The notions that age-related changes in the neuroendocrine system partly account for hormonal changes during aging and that the neuroendocrine system thereby contributes to the development of the senescent phenotype are widely accepted. Less attention has been given to the possibility that the neuroendocrine system can play a role in the retardation of aging. The objective of this paper is to present evidence that the neuroendocrine system contributes to the retardation of aging by food restriction by orchestrating the hormonal changes that are associated with chronic caloric restriction. Relatively little is known about the characteristics of the neuroendocrine system of the chronically food-restricted organism. The evidence that this system may play a central role in mediating the life-extending action of food restriction argues for further study of neuroendocrine function in the food-restricted animal.