Background: Chronic neuroinflammation and calcium (Ca+2) dysregulation are both components of Alzheimer's disease. Prolonged neuroinflammation produces elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species which can alter neuronal Ca+2 homeostasis via L-type voltage-dependent Ca+2 channels (L-VDCCs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Chronic neuroinflammation also leads to deficits in spatial memory, which may be related to Ca+2 dysregulation. Methods: The studies herein use an in vivo model of chronic neuroinflammation: rats were infused intraventricularly with a continuous small dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) for 28days. The rats were treated with the L-VDCC antagonist nimodipine or the RyR antagonist dantrolene. Results: LPS-infused rats had significant memory deficits in the Morris water maze, and this deficit was ameliorated by treatment with nimodipine. Synaptosomes from LPS-infused rats had increased Ca+2 uptake, which was reduced by a blockade of L-VDCCs either in vivo or ex vivo. Conclusions: Taken together, these data indicate that Ca+2 dysregulation during chronic neuroinflammation is partially dependent on increases in L-VDCC function. However, blockade of the RyRs also slightly improved spatial memory of the LPS-infused rats, demonstrating that other Ca+2 channels are dysregulated during chronic neuroinflammation. Ca+2-dependent immediate early gene expression was reduced in LPS-infused rats treated with dantrolene or nimodipine, indicating normalized synaptic function that may underlie improvements in spatial memory. Pro-inflammatory markers are also reduced in LPS-infused rats treated with either drug. Overall, these data suggest that Ca+2 dysregulation via L-VDCCs and RyRs play a crucial role in memory deficits resulting from chronic neuroinflammation.
- L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels
- Ryanodine receptors
- Spatial memory
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience