Business models and provider satisfaction in in vitro fertilization centers in the USA

J. E. McLaughlin, J. F. Knudtson, R. S. Schenken, N. S. Ketchum, J. A. Gelfond, T. A. Chang, R. D. Robinson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Purpose: The number of in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles is increasing and the majority of patients undergoing IVF pay out of pocket. Reproductive endocrinology and infertility practitioners employ different business models to help create financial pathways for patients needing IVF but details regarding the different types of business models being used and physician satisfaction with those models have not been described previously. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was sent to members of the Society of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility. The survey included 30 questions designed to assess demographics, practice patterns, and business models utilized. Results: A total of 222/736 (30%) physicians responded to the survey. The majority of physicians offer a-la-carte (67%), bundled services (69%), grants (57%), and cost/risk-sharing (50%). The majority answered that the single ideal business model is bundled services (53%). There was no significant association between financial package offered and region of practice or state-mandated insurance. The largest barrier to care reported was cost with or without state-mandated coverage (94% and 99%, respectively). The majority of practices are satisfied with their business model (75%). Higher physician satisfaction was associated with private practice [69% vs 27%; OR (95%CI) = 3.8 (1.7, 8.6)], male gender [59% vs 30%; OR = 2.4 (1.1, 5.4)], and offering bundled services [83% vs 59%; OR = 2.8 (1.2, 6.7)]. Conclusions: Physicians utilize a variety of business models and most are satisfied with their current model. Cost is the major barrier to care in states with and without mandated coverage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)283-289
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 15 2019


  • Barriers
  • Business models
  • In vitro fertilization
  • Physician satisfaction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Reproductive Medicine
  • Genetics
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Genetics(clinical)


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