Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale Expanded Version: How do new items affect factor structure?

Dawn Velligan, Thomas Prihoda, Ellen Dennehy, Melanie Biggs, Kathy Shores-Wilson, M. Lynn Crismon, A. John Rush, Alexander Miller, Trisha Suppes, Madhukar Trivedi, T. Michael Kashner, Bradley Witte, Marcia Toprac, Thomas Carmody, John Chiles, Stephen Shon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

101 Scopus citations


Our goal was to suggest a factor structure for the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale Expanded Version (BPRS-E) based upon a large and diverse sample and to determine which of the new items improved the factors derived from the 18-item version of the scale that have been used in clinical research for decades. We investigated the consistency of our proposed model over time and across demographic groups. As part of the Texas Medication Algorithm Project, the BPRS-E was administered to a total of 1440 psychiatric outpatients in three different diagnostic groups on multiple occasions. The sample was randomly split so that exploratory factor analysis could be done with the first half, and the model could be confirmed on the second half. A four-factor structure including factors assessing depression/anxiety, psychosis, negative symptoms, and activation was found. For each factor, we specify items in the expanded version that added to the breadth of the commonly used clinical factors while improving or maintaining goodness of fit and reliability. The final model proposed was consistent over time and across diagnosis, phase of illness, age, gender, ethnicity, and level of education. The BPRS-E has a stable four-factor structure, making it useful as a clinical outcome measure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)217-228
Number of pages12
JournalPsychiatry Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 30 2005


  • Confirmatory factor analysis
  • Expanded BPRS
  • Exploratory factor analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry


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