Bone tissue engineering using human mesenchymal stem cells: Effects of scaffold material and medium flow

Lorenz Meinel, Vassilis Karageorgiou, Robert Fajardo, Brian Snyder, Vivek Shinde-Patil, Ludwig Zichner, David Kaplan, Robert Langer, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

433 Scopus citations


We report studies of bone tissue engineering using human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a protein substrate (film or scaffold; fast degrading unmodified collagen, or slowly degrading cross-linked collagen and silk), and a bioreactor (static culture, spinner flask, or perfused cartridge). MSCs were isolated from human bone marrow, characterized for the expression of cell surface markers and the ability to undergo chondrogenesis and osteogenesis in vitro, and cultured for 5 weeks. MSCs were positive for CD105/endoglin, and had a potential for chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation. In static culture, calcium deposition was similar for MSC grown on collagen scaffolds and films. Under medium flow, MSC on collagen scaffolds deposited more calcium and had a higher alcaline phosphatase (AP) activity than MSC on collagen films. The amounts of DNA were markedly higher in constructs based on slowly degrading (modified collagen and silk) scaffolds than on fast degrading (unmodified collagen) scaffolds. In spinner flasks, medium flow around constructs resulted in the formation of bone rods within the peripheral region, that were interconnected and perpendicular to the construct surface, whereas in perfused constructs, individual bone rods oriented in the direction of fluid flow formed throughout the construct volume. These results suggest that osteogenesis in cultured MSC can be modulated by scaffold properties and flow environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)112-122
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Biomedical Engineering
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Bioreactor
  • Collagen
  • Flow
  • Scaffold
  • Silk
  • μ-Computerized Tomography

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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