Bone respones to loaded implants with non-matching implant-abutment diameters in the canine mandible

David L. Cochran, Dieter D. Bosshardt, Leticia Grize, Frank L. Hlgginbottom, Archie A. Jones, Ronald E. Jung, Marco Wieland, Michel Dard

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

97 Scopus citations


Background: One way to evaluate various implant restorations is to mea-sure the amount of bone change that occurs at the crestal bone. The objective of this study was to histologically evaluate the alveolar bone change around a bone-level, non-matching implant-abutment diameter configuration that incorporated a horizontal offset and a Morse taper internal connection. Methods: The study design included extraction of all mandibular premolars and first molars in five canines. After 3 months, 12 dental implants were placed at three levels in each dog: even with the alveolar crest, 1 mm above the alveolar crest, and 1 mm below the alveolar crest. The implants were submerged on one side of the mandible. On the other side, healing abutments were exposed to the oral cavity (non-submerged). Gold crowns were attached 2 months after implant placement. The dogs were sacrificed 8 months postioading, and specimens were processed for histologic and histometric analyses. Results: Evaluation of the specimens indicated that the marginal bone remained near the top of the implants under submerged and non-submerged conditions. The amount of bone change for submerged implants placed even with, 1 mm below, and 1 mm above the alveolar crest was -0.34,-1.29. and 0.04 mm, respectively (negative values indicate bone loss). For non-submerged implants, the respective values were -0.38, -1.13, and 0.19 mm. For submerged and non-submerged implants, there were significant differences in the amount of bone change among the three groups (P<0.05). The percentage of bone-to-implant contact for submerged implants was 73.3%, 71.8%, and 71.5%. For non-submerged implants, the respective numbers were 73.2%, 74.5%, and 76%. No significant differences occurred with regard to the percentage of bone contact. Conclusions: Minimal histologic bone loss occurred when dental implants with non-matching implant-abutment diameters were placed at the bone crest and were loaded for 6 months in the canine. The bone loss was significantly less (five- to six-fold) than that reported for bone-level implants with matching implant-abutment diameters (butt-joint connections).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)609-617
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of periodontology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2009


  • Animal studies
  • Bone loss
  • Dental implants
  • Histology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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