Bone remineralization of lytic lesions in multiple myeloma – The Arkansas experience

Meera Mohan, Manoj Kumar, Rohan Samant, Rudy Van Hemert, Erming Tian, Shivang Desai, Frits van Rhee, Sharmilan Thanendrarajan, Carolina Schinke, Larry J. Suva, Shobhit Sharma, Mohamed Milad, Samantha Kendrick, Maurizio Zangari

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Multiple myeloma (MM) patients frequently present with extensive osteolytic bone lesions. However, the impact of myeloma treatment on focal lytic lesion remineralization has not been extensively studied. In this study, the effect of anti-myeloma treatment on the extent of bone remineralization was examined and potential mediators identified. Newly diagnosed MM patients enrolled in the Total Therapy 4 and 5 (TT4; n = 231, TT5; n = 64) protocols were longitudinally evaluated for changes in radiological parameters for a median of 6.1 years. Bone remineralization was defined as a sclerotic CT change within the lytic lesion and quantified as a percentage of remineralization, using the initial lesion size as a reference. Such changes were correlated to clinical and biochemical parameters, and the gene expression profile of bone marrow biopsy. Overall, remineralization occurred in 72% of patients (213/295). Of those patients that experienced remineralization, 36% (107/295) achieved at least 25% of bone remineralization. Patients with high-risk disease defined by gene expression profile signature (GEP70 ≥ 0.66) experienced significant remineralization compared to low-risk MM. Female patients were also more likely to experience bone remineralization and in a shorter median time (2.0 vs. 3.3 y). Factors such as serum alkaline phosphatase along with high levels of RUNX2 and SOX4 gene expression correlated with increasing extent of bone remineralization. This analysis demonstrated significant remineralization of lytic lesions in MM patients treated on TT clinical trials. While the underlying mechanism remains elusive these findings support the hypothesis that patient baseline bone-related factors play a fundamental role in the skeletal repair of bone lesions in MM that provide new opportunities for improving patient outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number115876
StatePublished - May 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Bone lytic lesion remineralization in high-risk myeloma patients

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Histology


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