Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) in suppressing granulation tissue formation caused by bare metallic stent placement in a rat urethral model. Materials and Methods: All experiments were approved by the committee of animal research. In 20 Sprague-Dawley male rats (weight range, 300-350 g), a self-expanding metallic bare stent was inserted in the urethra with fluoroscopic guidance. One group of 10 rats (group A) was treated with MMP-9 siRNA/bioreducible branched polyethylenimine-disulfide cross-linked-indocyanine green (bioreducible BPEI-SSI-CG), while the other group of 10 rats (group B) received control siRNA/bioreducible BPEI-SS-ICG treatment. All rats were sacrificed at 4 weeks. The therapeutic effectiveness of the MMP-9 siRNA/bioreducible BPEI-SS-ICG complex was assessed by comparing the two results of retrograde urethrography, histologic examination, and quantification of MMP-9 by using zymography and Western blot analysis between the two groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate differences. Results: Stent placement was successful in all rats without a single case of migration at follow-up. Retrograde urethrography performed 4 weeks after stent placement demonstrated significantly larger luminal diameters of the urethra within the stents in group A compared with those in group B (P = .011). Histologic analysis revealed that the mean percentage of granulation tissue area (P < .001), mean number of epithelial layers (P < .001), and mean thickness of submucosal fibrosis (P < .001) were significantly decreased in group A compared with group B. Meanwhile, the mean density of inflammatory cell infiltration did not significantly differ between the two groups (P = .184). Quantitative analysis disclosed MMP-9 levels to be lower in group A relative to group B, indicating positive inhibition of MMP-9 by MMP-9 siRNA/bioreducible BPEI-SS-ICG. Conclusion: MMP-9 siRNA/bioreducible BPEI-SS-ICG is effective for inhibiting granulation tissue formation after bare metallic stent placement in a rat urethral model.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging