Biogenic amines in the reduction of oxidative stress

Melatonin and its metabolites

Russel J Reiter, Dun Xian Tan, Mei Jie Jou, Ahmet Korkmaz, Lucien C. Manchester, Sergio D. Paredes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

85 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine (melatonin) is an endogenous indoleamine produced by all vertebrate organisms. Its production in the pineal gland has been extensively investigated but other organs also synthesize this important amine. Melatonin's functions in organisms are diverse. The actions considered in the current review relate to its ability to function in the reduction of oxidative stress, i.e., molecular damage produced by reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Numerous publications have now shown that not only is melatonin itself an efficient scavenger of free radicals and related reactants, but so are its by-products cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, and others. These derivatives are produced sequentially when each functions in the capacity of a free radical scavenger. These successive reactions are referred to as the antioxidant cascade of melatonin. That melatonin has this function within cells has been observed in studies employing time lapse conventional, confocal and multiphoton fluorescent microscopy coupled with the use of appropriate mitochondrial-targeted fluorescent probes. The benefits of melatonin and its metabolites have been described in the brain where they are found to be protective in models of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and spinal cord injury. The reader is reminded, however, that data not covered in this review has documented beneficial actions of these amines in every organ where they have been tested. The outlook for the use of melatonin in clinical trials looks encouraging given its low toxicity and high efficacy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)391-398
Number of pages8
JournalNeuroendocrinology Letters
Volume29
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2008

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Biogenic Amines
Melatonin
Oxidative Stress
Free Radical Scavengers
Amines
5-Methoxytryptamine
Reactive Nitrogen Species
Aptitude
Pineal Gland
Spinal Cord Injuries
Fluorescent Dyes
Parkinson Disease
Vertebrates
Publications
Microscopy
Alzheimer Disease
Antioxidants
Clinical Trials
Oxygen
Brain

Keywords

  • Antioxidant
  • Central nervous system
  • Melatonin
  • N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine
  • N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine
  • Oxidative stress

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Neurology

Cite this

Reiter, R. J., Tan, D. X., Jou, M. J., Korkmaz, A., Manchester, L. C., & Paredes, S. D. (2008). Biogenic amines in the reduction of oxidative stress: Melatonin and its metabolites. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 29(4), 391-398.

Biogenic amines in the reduction of oxidative stress : Melatonin and its metabolites. / Reiter, Russel J; Tan, Dun Xian; Jou, Mei Jie; Korkmaz, Ahmet; Manchester, Lucien C.; Paredes, Sergio D.

In: Neuroendocrinology Letters, Vol. 29, No. 4, 08.2008, p. 391-398.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reiter, RJ, Tan, DX, Jou, MJ, Korkmaz, A, Manchester, LC & Paredes, SD 2008, 'Biogenic amines in the reduction of oxidative stress: Melatonin and its metabolites', Neuroendocrinology Letters, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 391-398.
Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Jou MJ, Korkmaz A, Manchester LC, Paredes SD. Biogenic amines in the reduction of oxidative stress: Melatonin and its metabolites. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 2008 Aug;29(4):391-398.
Reiter, Russel J ; Tan, Dun Xian ; Jou, Mei Jie ; Korkmaz, Ahmet ; Manchester, Lucien C. ; Paredes, Sergio D. / Biogenic amines in the reduction of oxidative stress : Melatonin and its metabolites. In: Neuroendocrinology Letters. 2008 ; Vol. 29, No. 4. pp. 391-398.
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