The GnRH antagonist Antide has been shown to produce prolonged inhibition of gonadotropin secretion in ovariectomized monkeys and other animal models. The reasons for such a long duration of action have not yet been clarified. To understand the mode of action of this new antagonist, we have performed association and dissociation binding kinetics using either crude rat pituitary homogenates as source of GnRH receptors or dispersed pituitary cells in culture. The binding characteristics of the radioiodinated Antide analog 125I-labeled[D-Tyr0] Antide to GnRH receptors in rat pituitary homogenates were comparable to those of the first generation GnRH antagonist 125I-labeled [Ac(3)Pro1, pFD-Phe2, D-Trp3, 6]GnRH or the GnRH agonist 125I-labeled [D-Trp6,(N-Et)Pro9, Des, Gly10]GnRH, with an affinity constant (Ka) in the 10(10) M-1 range. The maximum binding capacity was consistently higher with the antagonist tracers than with the [125I]GnRH agonist. Both antagonists dissociated at a slower rate at 4 C (approximately 4 times) than the [125I]GnRH agonist. Incubation at 23 C of 125I-labeled [D-Tyr0] Antide previously bound at 4 C resulted in complete dissociation within 8 h after the addition of an excess amount of any of the GnRH analogs; in addition, simple dilution of the incubation medium produced spontaneous dissociation at this temperature. Using rat pituitary cells, Antide was found to inhibit the LH response to native GnRH (10(−8) M) in a dose-related manner. To test whether the binding of Antide is normally reversible at 37 C, Antide (10(−7) M) was added to the culture medium 3 days after cell plating, and the initial preincubation was resumed for 24 h. Cells were then washed twice, and dissociation was allowed to take place. Bound Antide was shown to dissociate rapidly at 37 C, as cells previously treated with Antide produced a full LH response within 24 h if challenged with native GnRH. In conclusion, the binding kinetics of 125I-labeled [D-Tyr0]Antide to GnRH receptors, which should reflect those of Antide, did not present abnormal features. Although this antagonist, similar to other GnRH antagonists, dissociated from pituitary receptors at a slower rate than GnRH analogs, rapid and spontaneous dissociation was achieved at 23 C with simple dilution, and dissociation of unmodified Antide occurred at 37 C. Taken together, our results support the concept that the long duration of action of Antide is not due to any toxic effect of Antide at the receptor site and could derive only marginally from the slow dissociation rate of this antagonist.
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