BIGH3 protein and macrophages in retinal endothelial cell apoptosis

Albert A. Mondragon, Brandi S. Betts-Obregon, Robert J. Moritz, Kalpana Parvathaneni, Mary M. Navarro, Hong Seok Kim, Chi Fung Lee, Richard G. Lebaron, Reto Asmis, Andrew T. Tsin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Diabetes is a pandemic disease with a higher occurrence in minority populations. The molecular mechanism to initiate diabetes-associated retinal angiogenesis remains largely unknown. We propose an inflammatory pathway of diabetic retinopathy in which macrophages in the diabetic eye provide TGFβ to retinal endothelial cells (REC) in the retinal microvasculature. In response to TGFβ, REC synthesize and secrete a pro-apoptotic BIGH3 (TGFβ-Induced Gene Human Clone 3) protein, which acts in an autocrine loop to induce REC apoptosis. Rhesus monkey retinal endothelial cells (RhREC) were treated with dMCM (cell media of macrophages treated with high glucose and LDL) and assayed for apoptosis (TUNEL), BIGH3 mRNA (qPCR), and protein (Western blots) expressions. Cells were also treated with GFβ1 and 2 for BIGH3 mRNA and protein expression. Inhibition assays were carried out using antibodies for TGFβ1 and for BIGH3 to block apoptosis and mRNA expression. BIGH3 in cultured RhREC cells were identified by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Distribution of BIGH3 and macrophages in the diabetic mouse retina was examined with IHC. RhRECs treated with dMCM or TGFβ showed a significant increase in apoptosis and BIGH3 protein expression. Recombinant BIGH3 added to RhREC culture medium led to a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis. Antibodies (Ab) directed against BIGH3 and TGFβ, as well as TGFβ receptor blocker resulted in a significant reduction in apoptosis induced by either dMCM, TGFβ or BIGH3. IHC showed that cultured RhREC constitutively expressed BIGH3. Macrophage and BIGH3 protein were co-localized to the inner retina of the diabetic mouse eye. Our results support a novel inflammatory pathway for diabetic retinopathy. This pathway is initiated by TGFβ released from macrophages, which promotes synthesis and release of BIGH3 protein by REC and REC apoptosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-37
Number of pages9
JournalApoptosis
Volume20
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2015

Keywords

  • Apoptosis
  • BIGH3
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Macrophage
  • Retinal endothelial cells
  • TGFβ

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Biochemistry, medical
  • Cancer Research

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