Animals maintained in laboratory environments often live in conditions that are restrictive and limiting compared with their natural habitats. Although such environments meet the physical needs of the animals, they may not be sufficient to allow the animals to express the full range of their species-typical behavior. The natural environments of most animals are extremely complex, involving unpredictable 410elements, as well as routine tasks. Laboratory environments may lack some of the stimuli necessary to promote desirable species-specific natural behaviors. Even within a single order of animals, such as primates, there are major differences between species, both in the ways they perceive the environment and in their particular needs. Differences in ecological variables, such as social group size, food source, and mating patterns, lead to contrasts in both consummatory and appetitive patterns. These dissimilarities need to be taken into account when designing captive environments and management protocols.
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