Behavioral and pharmacological treatments for tic and habit disorders: A review

Alan L. Peterson, Rick L. Campise, Nathan H. Azrin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

59 Scopus citations


Children with tic and habit disorders are often seen by pediatricians, psychologists, or psychiatrists for evaluation and treatment. Current knowledge of the treatment-outcome research in these areas can serve as an important guide in the evaluation and treatment planning process. This article reviews the behavior therapy and pharmacological treatment of motor and vocal tic disorders, self-destructive oral habits, trichotillomania (hair pulling), onychophagia (nail biting), and thumb sucking. The research evidence indicates that all of these disorders can be effectively treated with behavioral or pharmacological approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)430-441
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1994
Externally publishedYes


  • Bruxism
  • Onychophagia
  • Thumb sucking
  • Tics
  • Trichotillomania

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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