Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) is an established procedure for the management of bleeding gastric varices in Asia. Invariably, the sclerosant utilized in Asia is ethanolamine oleate and the inventory used (vascular sheaths, balloon-occlusion catheters, and microcatheters) is not available outside Asia. A total of 41 BRTO procedures were performed with a technical and obliterative (gastric varix obliteration) success rate of 95% (n = 39 of 41) and 85% (n = 35 of 41), respectively. Complications were 4.9% (n = 2/41). A total of 6 balloon ruptures occurred (14.6%, n = 6 of 41). One rupture (16.7%, n = 1 of 6 of ruptures) lead to a technical failure and 2 ruptures (33.3%, n = 2 of 6 of ruptures) lead to an obliterative failure. Balloon rupture contributed to 50% of technical failures (n = 1/2, P =.274) and 33% of obliteration failures (n = 2/6, P =.148). In conclusion, the incidence of balloon-occlusion catheter rupture utilizing 3% sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) and inventory unique to the United States is significantly higher than in Asia (<8% rupture rate). However, these ruptures have no significant technical or clinical consequences.
- balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration
- clinical practice
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine