Various protein isoforms have been identified for human apolipoprotein A- IV (apoA-IV). However, investigations of their physiological effects have been limited because of low frequencies for many of the apoA-IV variants. Recent discovery of extensive variation in baboon apoA-IV using isoelectric focusing (IEF) makes this primate species an excellent model for genetic studies of apoA-IV. In this study, the molecular basis for net charge differences between two common apoA-IV isoforms (I and E) was determined by cloning and sequencing of intestinal cDNAs from homozygous baboons. An A → G substitution was found in the third amphipathic repeat of the E isoform. This substitution causes a Lys → Glu substitution at amino acid position 76 (Lys76 → Glu), adding two negative charges to the E isoform compared to the I isoform, consistent with their relative mobilities on IEF gels. Restriction isotyping was used to identify the substitution in leukocyte DNA from 15 baboons that had been typed by IEF, thus verifying Lys76 → Glu as the basis for the charge differences between the I and E isoforms. Physiological effects of the Lys76 → Glu substitution on high density lipoprotein-C levels were investigated in 431 baboons carrying the E and I isoforms. These studies revealed that the I isoform was associated with higher levels of high density lipoprotein-C on a high cholesterol, saturated fat diet (p = 0.04). The cDNA sequences showed that the carboxyl terminus of baboon apoA-IV contains a region of hydrophilic repeats (Glu-Gln-X-Gln) that is the largest yet found in any species (nine repeats compared to three to five repeats in human, mouse, and rat). A common length polymorphism was identified that inserts a single amino acid to form a five amino acid repeat. This is the first report of this type of length variation (insertion of a single amino acid rather than insertion of an entire repeat) in this region. In addition, a rare variant was found that inserts an entire four- amino-acid repeat, similar to the human apoA-IV-0 isoform.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - 1993|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology