Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) mediates immunoglobulin class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM), critical processes for maturation of the antibody response. Epigenetic factors, such as histone deacetylases (HDACs), would underpin B cell differentiation stage–specific AID expression. Here, we showed that NAD+-dependent class III HDAC sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) is highly expressed in resting B cells and down-regulated by stimuli inducing AID. B cell Sirt1 down-regulation, deprivation of NAD+ cofactor, or genetic Sirt1 deletion reduced deacetylation of Aicda promoter histones, Dnmt1, and nuclear factor–κB (NF-κB) p65 and increased AID expression. This promoted class-switched and hypermutated T-dependent and T-independent antibody responses or led to generation of autoantibodies. Genetic Sirt1 overexpression, Sirt1 boost by NAD+, or allosteric Sirt1 enhancement by SRT1720 repressed AID expression and CSR/SHM. By deacetylating histone and nonhistone proteins (Dnmt1 and NF-κB p65), Sirt1 transduces metabolic cues into epigenetic changes to play an important B cell–intrinsic role in modulating antibody and autoantibody responses.
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