Introduction: Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AIT) are common in children and may present with a variety of signs and symptoms including: euthyroid goiter, hypothyroidism, or hyperthyroidism. The natural history of AIT may be different in children but in all age groups, there appear to be genetic risk factors and environmental triggers that initiate thyroid autoimmunity. Areas covered: In this review, we summarize recent studies that investigate the genetics and environmental triggers believed to be involved in thyroid autoimmunity. We also discuss the approach and controversies in the treatment of children with AIT. Expert commentary: Much has been learned about the major roles for genetics, cytokines, regulatory lymphocytes, and environmental triggers in CLT but controversies remain.
- Graves’ disease
- Hashimoto thyroiditis
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism