Attention-deficit hyperactivity symptomatology after traumatic brain injury: A prospective study

Jeffrey E. Max, Stephan Arndt, Carlos S. Castillo, Hirokazu Bokura, Donald A. Robin, Scott D. Lindgren, Wilbur L. Smith, Yutaka Sato, Philip J. Mattheis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

89 Scopus citations


Objective: To study prospectively the course of attention-deficit hyperactivity (ADH) symptomatology in children and adolescents after traumatic brain injury (TBI). It was hypothesized that ADH symptomatology would be significantly related to severity of injury. Method: Subjects were children (n = 50) aged 6 to 14 years at the time they were hospitalized after TBI. The study used a prospective follow-up design. Assessments of preinjury psychiatric, behavioral, socioeconomic, family functioning, and family psychiatric history status were conducted. Severity of injury was assessed by standard clinical scales, and neuroimaging was analyzed. Results: The main finding of this study was that change in ADH symptomatology in the first 2 years after TBI in children and adolescents was significantly related to severity of injury. Overall ADH symptomatology during the study was significantly related to a measure of family dysfunction when family psychiatric history, socioeconomic status, and severity of injury were controlled. Conclusion: The presence of a positive 'dose-response' relationship between severity of injury and change in ADH symptoms, present from the 3-month assessment, was consistent with an effect directly related to brain damage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)841-847
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1998


  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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