Association of US County-Level Eviction Rates and All-Cause Mortality

Shreya Rao, Utibe R. Essien, Tiffany M. Powell-Wiley, Bhumika Maddineni, Sandeep R. Das, Ethan A. Halm, Ambarish Pandey, Andrew Sumarsono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Housing instability is a key social determinant of health and has been linked to adverse short- and long-term health. Eviction reflects a severe form of housing instability and disproportionately affects minority and women residents in the USA; however, its relationship with mortality has not previously been described. Objective: To evaluate the independent association of county-level eviction rates with all-cause mortality in the USA after adjustment for county demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related characteristics. Design: Cross-sectional. Participants: Six hundred eighty-six US counties with available 2016 county-level eviction and mortality data. Exposure: 2016 US county-level eviction rate. Outcome: 2016 US county-level age-adjusted all-cause mortality. Key Results: Among 686 counties (66.1 million residents, 50.5% [49.7–51.2] women, 2% [0.5–11.1] Black race) with available eviction and mortality data in 2016, we observed a significant and graded relationship between county-level eviction rate and all-cause mortality. Counties in the highest eviction tertile demonstrated a greater proportion of residents of Black race and women and a higher prevalence of poverty and comorbid health conditions. After adjustment for county-level sociodemographic traits and prevalent comorbid health conditions, age-adjusted all-cause mortality was highest among counties in the highest eviction tertile (Tertile 3 vs 1 (per 100,000 people) 33.57: 95% CI: 10.5–56.6 p=.004). Consistent results were observed in continuous analysis of eviction, with all-cause mortality increasing by 9.32 deaths per 100,000 people (4.77, 13.89, p<.0001) for every 1% increase in eviction rates. Significant interaction in the relationship between eviction and all-cause mortality was observed by the proportion of Black and women residents. Conclusions: In this cross-sectional analysis, county-level eviction rates were significantly associated with all-cause mortality with the strongest effects observed among counties with the highest proportion of Black and women residents. State and federal protections from evictions may help to reduce the health consequences of housing instability and address disparities in health outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1207-1213
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of General Internal Medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - Apr 2023
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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