Depression and suicidal behavior are frequently observed in patients with schizophrenia. The serotonin transporter protein regulates serotonergic signaling at synapses and is encoded by a single gene (SLC6A4; Locus Link ID: 6532), located at 17q11.1-q12 with two polymorphic variants (the short and the long allele). The short allele of serotonin transporter gene has been associated with depression and suicidality in individuals who suffered negative life events and with depression in individuals with chronic psychosis.. Subjects were recruited from a genetic study of schizophrenia conducted in Costa Rica. The authors replicated their previous research, using a more narrow phenotype (only schizophrenic subjects) and a more ethnically homogenous sample (only Costa Rican schizophrenic individuals who were not included in the previous study). The authors hypothesized that subjects with at least one copy of the serotonin transporter promoter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) "s" allele would have a greater history of lifetime depression and suicidability rate than those who had an "l/l" genotype. The authors analyzed 155 subjects with a DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition) diagnosis of schizophrenia (73% male, age at interview 38.3, SD 11.23). The genotype distribution was "ss" 58 (37%), "sl" 69 (45%), and "ll" 28 (18%). In the secondary analysis, the authors explored association of the "s" allele with lifetime history of suicide behavior in 173 subjects (18 more subjects than primary analysis because schizophrenic individuals were included regardless of history of depression). The authors found that subjects carrying at least one short allele had a significant increased lifetime risk for depressive syndromes (χ2 5.4, df 1, P 0.02; odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.156.3). No association was found for suicidal behavior in the same sample (χ2 0.928, P 0.629). In conclusion, the genotype at the 5-HTTLPR promoter polymorphic locus increases the risk of developing major depression but not suicidal behavior during the course of the schizophrenia in these patients. Due to the small sample size, these results should be followed by definitive replication.
- Serotonin transporter gene
- Suicidal behavior
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience