Association of freeze-dried plasma with 24-h mortality among trauma patients at risk for hemorrhage

Nee Kofi Mould-Millman, Adane F. Wogu, Bailey K. Fosdick, Julia M. Dixon, Brenda L. Beaty, Smitha Bhaumik, Hendrick J. Lategan, Willem Stassen, Steven G. Schauer, Elmin Steyn, Janette Verster, Craig Wylie, Shaheem de Vries, Maria Jamison, Maria Kohlbrenner, Mohammed Mayet, Lesley Hodsdon, Leigh Wagner, L' Oreal Snyders, Karlien DoubellDenise Lourens, Vikhyat S. Bebarta

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Blood products form the cornerstone of contemporary hemorrhage control but are limited resources. Freeze-dried plasma (FDP), which contains coagulation factors, is a promising adjunct in hemostatic resuscitation. We explore the association between FDP alone or in combination with other blood products on 24-h mortality. Study Design and Methods: This is a secondary data analysis from a cross-sectional prospective observational multicenter study of adult trauma patients in the Western Cape of South Africa. We compare mortality among trauma patients at risk of hemorrhage in three treatment groups: Blood Products only, FDP + Blood Products, and FDP only. We apply inverse probability of treatment weighting and fit a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model to assess the hazard of 24-h mortality. Results: Four hundred and forty-eight patients were included, and 55 (12.2%) died within 24 h of hospital arrival. Compared to the Blood Products only group, we found no difference in 24-h mortality for the FDP + Blood Product group (p =.40) and a lower hazard of death for the FDP only group (hazard = 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15–1.00; p =.05). However, sensitivity analyses showed no difference in 24-h mortality across treatments in subgroups with moderate and severe shock, early blood product administration, and accounting for immortal time bias. Conclusion: We found insufficient evidence to conclude there is a difference in relative 24-h mortality among trauma patients at risk for hemorrhage who received FDP alone, blood products alone, or blood products with FDP. There may be an adjunctive role for FDP in hemorrhagic shock resuscitation in settings with significantly restricted access to blood products.

Original languageEnglish (US)
StateAccepted/In press - 2024


  • blood products
  • coagulopathy
  • freeze-dried plasma
  • hemorrhage
  • trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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