Objectives: We aimed to compare the associations of directly measured plasma free 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and total 25(OH)D concentrations with insulin sensitivity (SI) and β-Cell function in nondiabetic Hispanics and African Americans. We hypothesized that directly measured free 25(OH)Dwould bemore strongly associated with thesemeasures of glucose homeostasis and that associations would differ by race. Design: We studied 1189 nondiabetic participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study Family Study using data from baseline examinations from 2000 to 2002. SI, acute insulin response, and disposition index (DI) were determined from frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Plasma free and total 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. Results: The median concentrations of plasma free 25(OH)D were 3.46 pg/mL for Hispanics and 2.17 pg/mL for African Americans (P < 0.0001), whereas the median concentrations of plasma total 25(OH)D were 16 ng/mL for Hispanics and 10 ng/mL for African Americans (P < 0.0001). Plasma free and total 25(OH)D were both positively associated with SI and DI in generalized estimating equations adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors. After further adjustment with body mass index, the associations were no longer statistically significant, except for a significant association between plasma free 25(OH)D and SI. There was no effect modification by ethnicity on any of the exposure-outcome associations. Conclusions: Our data showed that plasma free 25(OH)D had a slightly stronger association with SI compared with plasma total 25(OH)D, although the difference was modest and there were no marked differences in the associations between Hispanics and African Americans.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Biochemistry, medical