Background: Obesity and cardiometabolic dysfunction have been associated with cancer risk and severity. Underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine associations of obesity and related cardiometabolic traits with incident cancer. Methods: FHS (Framingham Heart Study) and PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease) study participants without prevalent cancer were studied, examining associations of obesity, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots, and C-reactive protein (CRP) with future cancer in Cox models. Results: Among 20,667 participants (mean age 50 years, 53% women), 2,619 cancer events were observed over a median follow-up duration of 15 years. Obesity was associated with increased risk for future gastrointestinal (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.05-1.60), gynecologic (HR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.08-2.45), and breast (HR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.05-1.66) cancer and lower risk for lung cancer (HR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.44-0.87). Similarly, waist circumference was associated with increased risk for overall, gastrointestinal, and gynecologic but not lung cancer. VAT but not subcutaneous adipose tissue was associated with risk for overall cancer (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.05-1.43), lung cancer (HR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.01-3.66), and melanoma (HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.02-2.38) independent of BMI. Last, higher CRP levels were associated with higher risk for overall, colorectal, and lung cancer (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions: Obesity and abdominal adiposity are associated with future risk for specific cancers (eg, gastrointestinal, gynecologic). Although obesity was associated with lower risk for lung cancer, greater VAT and CRP were associated with higher lung cancer risk after adjusting for BMI.
- gastrointestinal cancer
- risk factor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine