Association between serum phospholipid fatty acids and intraprostatic inflammation in the placebo arm of the prostate cancer prevention trial

Sarah H. Nash, Jeannette M. Schenk, Alan R. Kristal, Phillis J. Goodman, M. Scott Lucia, Howard L. Parnes, Ian M. Thompson, Scott M. Lippman, Xiaoling Song, Bora Gurel, Angelo De Marzo, Elizabeth A. Platz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Inflammation may play an etiologic role in prostate cancer. Several dietary factors influence inflammation; studies have shown that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are anti-inflammatory, whereas n-6 and trans fatty acids are proinflammatory. We evaluated whether serum phospholipid n-3, n-6, and trans fatty acids were associated with intraprostatic inflammation, separately in 191 prostate cancer cases and 247 controls from the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Men without a prostate cancer diagnosis underwent prostate biopsy at trial end, and benign prostate tissue inflammation was evaluated in approximately three biopsy cores per man; this was expressed as no, some, or all cores with inflammation. In controls, serum eicosapentaenoic acid [OR of all cores with inflammation versus none (95% CI), 0.35 (0.14-0.89)] and docosahexaenoic acid [OR (95% CI), 0.42 (0.17-1.02)] were inversely associated with, whereas linoleic acid [OR (95% CI), 3.85 (1.41-10.55)] was positively associated with intraprostatic inflammation. Serum trans fatty acids were not associated with intraprostatic inflammation. No significant associations were observed in cases; however, we could not rule out a positive association with linoleic acid and an inverse association with arachidonic acid. Thus, in the PCPT, we found that serum n-3 fatty acids were inversely, n-6 fatty acids were positively, and trans fatty acids were not associated with intraprostatic inflammation in controls. Although, in theory, inflammation could mediate associations of serum fatty acids with prostate cancer risk, our findings cannot explain the epidemiologic associations observed with n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)590-596
Number of pages7
JournalCancer Prevention Research
Volume8
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2015

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Phospholipids
Prostatic Neoplasms
Fatty Acids
Placebos
Inflammation
Trans Fatty Acids
Serum
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Linoleic Acid
Prostate
Biopsy
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Arachidonic Acid
Anti-Inflammatory Agents

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cancer Research
  • Oncology

Cite this

Association between serum phospholipid fatty acids and intraprostatic inflammation in the placebo arm of the prostate cancer prevention trial. / Nash, Sarah H.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Kristal, Alan R.; Goodman, Phillis J.; Lucia, M. Scott; Parnes, Howard L.; Thompson, Ian M.; Lippman, Scott M.; Song, Xiaoling; Gurel, Bora; De Marzo, Angelo; Platz, Elizabeth A.

In: Cancer Prevention Research, Vol. 8, No. 7, 01.07.2015, p. 590-596.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nash, SH, Schenk, JM, Kristal, AR, Goodman, PJ, Lucia, MS, Parnes, HL, Thompson, IM, Lippman, SM, Song, X, Gurel, B, De Marzo, A & Platz, EA 2015, 'Association between serum phospholipid fatty acids and intraprostatic inflammation in the placebo arm of the prostate cancer prevention trial', Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 590-596. https://doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0398
Nash, Sarah H. ; Schenk, Jeannette M. ; Kristal, Alan R. ; Goodman, Phillis J. ; Lucia, M. Scott ; Parnes, Howard L. ; Thompson, Ian M. ; Lippman, Scott M. ; Song, Xiaoling ; Gurel, Bora ; De Marzo, Angelo ; Platz, Elizabeth A. / Association between serum phospholipid fatty acids and intraprostatic inflammation in the placebo arm of the prostate cancer prevention trial. In: Cancer Prevention Research. 2015 ; Vol. 8, No. 7. pp. 590-596.
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abstract = "Inflammation may play an etiologic role in prostate cancer. Several dietary factors influence inflammation; studies have shown that long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are anti-inflammatory, whereas n-6 and trans fatty acids are proinflammatory. We evaluated whether serum phospholipid n-3, n-6, and trans fatty acids were associated with intraprostatic inflammation, separately in 191 prostate cancer cases and 247 controls from the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Men without a prostate cancer diagnosis underwent prostate biopsy at trial end, and benign prostate tissue inflammation was evaluated in approximately three biopsy cores per man; this was expressed as no, some, or all cores with inflammation. In controls, serum eicosapentaenoic acid [OR of all cores with inflammation versus none (95{\%} CI), 0.35 (0.14-0.89)] and docosahexaenoic acid [OR (95{\%} CI), 0.42 (0.17-1.02)] were inversely associated with, whereas linoleic acid [OR (95{\%} CI), 3.85 (1.41-10.55)] was positively associated with intraprostatic inflammation. Serum trans fatty acids were not associated with intraprostatic inflammation. No significant associations were observed in cases; however, we could not rule out a positive association with linoleic acid and an inverse association with arachidonic acid. Thus, in the PCPT, we found that serum n-3 fatty acids were inversely, n-6 fatty acids were positively, and trans fatty acids were not associated with intraprostatic inflammation in controls. Although, in theory, inflammation could mediate associations of serum fatty acids with prostate cancer risk, our findings cannot explain the epidemiologic associations observed with n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.",
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AU - Thompson, Ian M.

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AU - De Marzo, Angelo

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