Association between acculturation and structural assimilation and Mini-Mental State Examination-assessed cognitive impairment in older Mexican Americans: Findings from the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging

Marc P. Simpao, David V. Espino, Ray Palmer, Michael J Lichtenstein, Helen P Hazuda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Older Mexican Americans (MAs) have consistently scored lower on the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) than older European Americans (EAs). These lower scores may arise from factors other than those traditionally posited (age and education). Thus, this study examined the association between acculturation and structural assimilation and MMSE-assessed cognitive impairment, taking into account education, income, and other contextual factors. Subjects were participants in the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based study of chronic disease and functional status in 457 older MAs and 376 older EAs. Scales were used to measure two dimensions of acculturation: (family attitude, cultural values) and structural assimilation (functional integration into the broader American society). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age, sex, acculturation, and structural assimilation and MMSE scores suggestive of cognitive impairment (<24). After adjusting for contextual factors (age, sex, education and household income), diseases (diabetes mellitus, stroke, and hypertension), and sensory impairments (hearing and vision), structural assimilation, but neither dimension of acculturation, was significantly and negatively associated with MMSE-assessed cognitive impairment. Older MAs in the lowest structural assimilation stratum were 1.89 times as likely to have MMSE-assessed cognitive impairment as those in the highest. Age, education, and visual impairment were also independently associated with cognitive impairment. These findings highlight the need for geriatricians to take contextual factors (including age, education, and structural assimilation) into account when interpreting MMSE scores of MA patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1234-1239
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the American Geriatrics Society
Volume53
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2005

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Acculturation
Longitudinal Studies
Education
Age Factors
Sex Education
Vision Disorders
Hearing Loss
Diabetes Mellitus
Chronic Disease
Logistic Models
Stroke
Cognitive Dysfunction
Hypertension

Keywords

  • Acculturation
  • Cognitive impairment
  • Mexican American
  • MMSE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this

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title = "Association between acculturation and structural assimilation and Mini-Mental State Examination-assessed cognitive impairment in older Mexican Americans: Findings from the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging",
abstract = "Older Mexican Americans (MAs) have consistently scored lower on the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) than older European Americans (EAs). These lower scores may arise from factors other than those traditionally posited (age and education). Thus, this study examined the association between acculturation and structural assimilation and MMSE-assessed cognitive impairment, taking into account education, income, and other contextual factors. Subjects were participants in the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging, a community-based study of chronic disease and functional status in 457 older MAs and 376 older EAs. Scales were used to measure two dimensions of acculturation: (family attitude, cultural values) and structural assimilation (functional integration into the broader American society). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between age, sex, acculturation, and structural assimilation and MMSE scores suggestive of cognitive impairment (<24). After adjusting for contextual factors (age, sex, education and household income), diseases (diabetes mellitus, stroke, and hypertension), and sensory impairments (hearing and vision), structural assimilation, but neither dimension of acculturation, was significantly and negatively associated with MMSE-assessed cognitive impairment. Older MAs in the lowest structural assimilation stratum were 1.89 times as likely to have MMSE-assessed cognitive impairment as those in the highest. Age, education, and visual impairment were also independently associated with cognitive impairment. These findings highlight the need for geriatricians to take contextual factors (including age, education, and structural assimilation) into account when interpreting MMSE scores of MA patients.",
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