Assessment of Blood Loss during Neuroendovascular Procedures

Michael Goutnik, Andrew Nguyen, Chance Fleeting, Aashay Patel, Brandon Lucke-Wold, Dimitri Laurent, Tamara Wahbeh, Shawna Amini, Fadi Al Saiegh, Matthew Koch, Brian Hoh, Nohra Chalouhi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


(1) Background: Neuroendovascular procedures have generally been considered to have minor or inconsequential blood loss. No study, however, has investigated this question. The purpose of this study is to quantify the blood loss associated with neuroendovascular procedures and identify predictors of blood loss, using hemoglobin change as a surrogate for blood loss. (2) Methods: A retrospective review of 200 consecutive endovascular procedures (diagnostic and therapeutic) at our institution from January 2020 to October 2020 was performed. Patients had to have pre- and post-operative hematocrit and hemoglobin levels recorded within 48 h of the procedure (with no intervening surgeries) for inclusion. (3) Results: The mean age of our cohort was 60.1 years and the male representation was 52.5%. The mean pre-operative hemoglobin/hematocrit was significantly lower among females compared to males (12.1/36.2 vs. 13.0/38.5, p = 0.003, p = 0.009). The mean hemoglobin decrease was 0.5 g/dL for diagnostic angiograms compared to 1.2 g/dL for endovascular interventions (p < 0.0001), and 1.0 g/dL for all procedures combined. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, pre-operative antiplatelet/anticoagulant use was associated with a statistically significant decrease in hemoglobin. (4) Conclusions: Our data support that blood loss from diagnostic angiograms is marginal. Blood loss in endovascular interventions, however, tends to be higher. Pre-operative blood antiplatelet/anticoagulant use and increasing age appear to increase bleeding risk and may require closer patient monitoring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number677
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2024


  • anemia
  • angiography
  • hemoglobin
  • neuroendovascular procedures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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