Apparent affinity estimates and reversal of the effects of synthetic cannabinoids AM-2201, CP-47,497, JWH-122, and JWH-250 by rimonabant in rhesus monkeys

Lenka Hruba, Lance R. McMahon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Synthetic cannabinoids have been prohibited due to abuse liability and toxicity. Four such synthetic cannabinoids, AM-2201 ([1-(5-fluoropentyl)indol-3-yl]-naphthalen-1-ylmethanone), CP-47,497 (2-[(1R,3S)-3-hydroxycyclohexyl]-5-(2-methyloctan-2-yl)phenol), JWH-122 [(4-methylnaphthalen-1-yl)-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone], and JWH-250 [2-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)ethanone], were tested for their capacity to produce CB1 receptor–mediated discriminative stimulus effects in two groups of rhesus monkeys. One group (n = 4) discriminated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC; 0.1 mg/kg i.v.), and a second group (n = 4) discriminated the cannabinoid antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg i.v.) while receiving 1 mg/kg/12 hours of Δ9-THC. AM-2201, JWH-122, CP-47,497, JWH-250, and Δ9-THC increased Δ9-THC lever responding. Duration of action was 1–2 hours for AM-2201, JWH-122, and JWH-250 and 4–5 hours for CP-47,497 and Δ9-THC. Rimonabant (1 mg/kg) surmountably antagonized the discriminative stimulus effects of all cannabinoid agonists; the magnitude of rightward shift was 10.6-fold for AM-2201, 10.7-fold for JWH-122, 11.0-fold for CP-47,497, and 15.7-fold for JWH-250. The respective pKB values were not significantly different: 6.61, 6.65, 6.66, and 6.83. In Δ9-THC–treated monkeys discriminating rimonabant, AM-2201 (0.1 and 0.32 mg/kg), JWH-122 (0.32 and 1 mg/kg), JWH-250 (1 and 3.2 mg/kg), and CP-47,497 (0.32, 1, and 3.2 mg/kg) produced not only rate-decreasing effects that were reversed by rimonabant, but also dose-dependent, rightward shifts in the rimonabant discrimination dose-effect function. These results show striking similarity in the CB1 receptor mechanism mediating the subjective effects of AM-2201, JWH-122, JWH-250, and CP-47,497. For products containing AM-2201 and JWH-122, a short duration of action could lead to more frequent use; moreover, inattention to differences in potency among synthetic cannabinoids could underlie unexpected toxicity. Rapid reversal of effects by intravenous rimonabant has potential value in emergency situations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)278-286
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Volume362
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology

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