BACKGROUND: The fine needle aspiration finding of apocrine metaplasia in association with the usual cytologic findings of gynecomastia is distinctly unusual. Previous reports do not mention any historical clinical association. CASES: Two otherwise healthy adult males presented for fine needle aspiration (FNA) of new-onset breast masses. Both showed apocrine metaplasia associated with the typical clinical and cytologic features of gynecomastia on FNA. Additional questioning revealed that both patients reported recent anabolic steroid use as part of their body-building routines. CONCLUSION: The fine needle aspiration finding of apocrine metaplasia in association with the usual cytologic and clinical findings of gynecomastia in otherwise healthy adult males without a medication history may be an indicator of illicit anabolic steroid use. Anabolic steroid use often has serious consequences, so its possibility should prompt further evaluation by the patient’s clinician.
- Anabolic steroids
- Aspiration biopsy
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine